Explain why areas near the equator have warmer climates than areas far from the equator
Due to the shape and tilt of the earth, the equator is always slightly closer to the sun that the areas far from the equator. With the Earth's main source of heat (above mentioned sun) closest to the equator, the equator gets more heating than any other areas, and thus there is a warmer climate.
Another example is if you are in a room with several other people and there is a fireplace, those who are closest to the fire will be the warmest.
The equatir is a hot invisible stream going across the world; it crosses over Asia, Africa, America and a bit of Europe. This is why these places are warmer than the others. Plus Antartica is very far from it which is why it's extremely freezing